Role and Importance of Legal Advisory Board

Role and Importance of Legal Advisory Board

India is witnessing the paradigm shift in the way businesses are run in the country. It doesn’t matter whether you are a startup, MSME, or Large enterprise, everyone gearing up for the world stage. The government is making efforts to make “Ease of Doing Business” simpler by reducing compliance and making government machinery robust, by enacting more effective and robust laws. Similarly, corporates are streamlining their business to increase efficiency and net profits. However, no great business or effective government machinery can be built or run alone. It is high-quality advice from experts from various domains of a company’s operations that enhances an organization’s odds of success. This advice can either be given by Boards of Directors, Consultants other networks. Interestingly current trends show, more attention is given to advisory boards. 

Why have an advisory board?


It is important to answer one fundamental question by enterprise before setting up any Advisory Board. “Why are we establishing an advisory board and what do we want out of it?” The enterprise may be seeking assistance with anything from marketing to managing human resources to legal compliances and issues. Defining advisory boards’ purpose will help in structuring it for maximizing its contribution to the enterprise’s success.

Private company


The entrepreneurs can benefit from the introduction of an advisory board with having advice from industry experts, still, entrepreneurs are reluctant to cede their authority to outside groups of directors. In the case of multinational companies, there is a particular variation. In foreign jurisdictions, MNCs are not comfortable with advisory boards to cede any significant authority advisory board, even though local advisory can help in addressing the realities of operating in that particular location. 

An advisory board may serve for a board of directors as a feeder group. This works well if it consists of people, among other things, whose chemistry is good and who have the skills appropriate to the business needs. However, the development of an effective board is a long-term project.

In certain cases, the smaller advisory board can be more efficient than the larger board. While the optimum size of a management board varies, and while different sizes match different companies at different stages in their lives, all companies face constraints of size.

Formalizing advice


Advisory Boards provide consistency, longevity, and background knowledge, which can enable members of Advisory Boards to have sufficient knowledge and interest to give reliable advice in specific matters. A position of the Advisory Board and compensation for the position (or otherwise), contribute to ensuring that a request for assistance is considered seriously and that careful advice is provided.

Safe harbors


Advisory boards provide safe harbors for executives who may be able to test-drive options before they are forced to be more definitive and assertive before a board of directors, which assesses the CEO and establishes his or her compensation. A CEO may feel more comfortable expressing partially defined or tentative views before a group whose sole purpose is to provide advice. For the same reason, an advisory board may also serve as an instrument of change, both as a sounding board for senior executives and as a body that can inspire change in cases in which comparable suggestions from the board of directors might suggest a lack of confidence in the senior management team.

Focused input


An advisory board is created solely to deal with this issue without expressing an interest in or giving due consideration to other aspects of the business (which also must be taken into consideration by a board of directors). In contrast to participating in much of the ritual that accompanies the proceedings of the board of directors (minutes, formal approvals, ratifications, etc.), the Advisory Board can focus directly and solely on the issue for which it was established.

Customer/competitor issues


An advisory Board can contribute to alleviating customer/competitor issues for a Board. Sensitivities are involved in the entirety of your business, if that committee includes clients, before a board of directors. The problem may arise in the context of the customer vs. your company, but it can also arise among the client if they are on the board.



It may be less time consuming to deal with advisory boards than with boards of directors. Later meetings are usually held at least four times a year, more often; board meetings take time. An advisory board meets just once or twice a year. The meetings of the Advisory Board may also be shorter since its range of problems is smaller than that of the Board.

However, the company can benefit greatly from considering the kind of investment which must be undertaken in terms of time, organization, and cost if it is to obtain the desired benefit from the Advisory Board. 


Fiduciary duty/liability issues


Fiduciary duties and other liability concerns are addressed by advisory boards. Directors are exposed to a range of statutory obligations (responsibility for unpaid wages, unpaid taxes, damage to the environment, etc.) as well as to trusts and other obligations, which can lead to civil or legal liability. It is highly unlikely that a member of the advisory board might undergo such duties.

Corporate directors only have statutory responsibilities. Consequently, qualified persons who are not prepared to assume the responsibility of the director might be encouraged to help enterprises as members of the advisory board.

A distinctive and diversified case involving advisory boards that operate around limited partnerships can represent a serious risk. In these cases, however, the practice of how advisory boards function well is developed, and thus the risk is avoided.


Creating and operating advisory boards


It is essential to understand who wants to achieve what from the advisory board to achieve the desired benefits. A second issue is how the Board ‘s activities should be performed. It is necessary to address the following problems.



The Company and the advisory Board must understand what the advisory Board and individual members are looking for. This starts with determining who should be advised. The Board may well serve as (for example) adviser to the (CEO or chairman), a subsidiary or a chairman of the Division, other senior directors, or a board of directors or it may function as a marketing, product development, sales techniques or another business-related focus group. The type of persons in the advisory board and the way they need to be equipped and committed to their duties should determine the nature of that which is being sought.


The ultimate supervisory responsibility for every business of the company lies with the board of directors. An advisory committee can focus so broadly or narrowly on a particular feature of a particular product. The focus of the committee is important to determine.

The company considered an advisory board with legal, software, mathematics, and financial engineering skills. It also found that risk managers’ interests might be sufficiently different from those of others that the kind of interaction hoped for in the consultative board would not materialize.


An advisory board must be of the right size. The advisory board, like the board of directors’, must be established with care taking account of the current and future needs of the company and the chemistry of the members of the board and of others with whom advisory board members work. As mentioned below, considerable care and feeding are needed to be effective for members of the Advisory Board. A committee with more than the appropriate number of members will be challenged to provide ongoing information needed to allow the committee to be effective and to organize board meetings.

It is often best to start with the leader of the Advisory Board and to make the Board grow from a rather small size to its final number. This can be achieved over time as the advisory board develops skills and experience. Group dynamics show a maximum of eight or more (taking into account the need for corporate and other facilitators during meetings) except if the mandate of the advisory board requires a more substantial representation (for example, in a special and large number of constituencies with the establishment of an advisory committee).

Meeting organization and frequency


Members of the advisory board are sought for their characteristics. Those attributes are usually very popular for others, and they are busy people in most cases. If an advisory board is to be set up through meetings (instead of one-on-one consultation with the CEO, for example), meetings need to be scheduled well beforehand. To ensure that meeting dates are always known for the next 12- (or 18-) months, It is recommended to establish a scheduled meeting on a rotating 12-(or even 18-) month basis. Emergencies may arise, but a meeting date may be established well in advance, reducing the risk of conflict.


Term of Membership


It may be useful for members to be appointed for a particular term (one, two or three years), so that they can be active, rather than withdrawing their membership for the future. This issue may be especially important if an advisory board is initially established (if the costs and benefits of the board have not yet been established) or if expansions are envisaged beyond well-known members. In some cases it would be beneficial to convene a single advisory board meeting, to assess the value of the company before the advisory board or the public could be appointed to a more lasting structure.




It may be important, depending on the purpose of the advisory board, to focus on retaining the interests of the members of the Advisory Board, attracting members of the highest-profile, obtaining independent advice, addressing cost issues (or cash costs). No single formula is right for all advisory boards to compensate: each enterprise must take account of the sort of mechanisms of payments described above, its benefits, and its accompanying risks.


The commitment of Management/Leadership


An undertaking that wishes to have an effective consultative board shall devote time to determining its mandate, recruiting members, dealing with compensation issues, organizing effective meetings, making payments for the services of the members of the advisory board, and dealing with the other matters noted earlier. The commitment should come from a suitable point of view in the company. When an advisory board is primarily set up to inform the CEO, it must be clear and consistent that the CEO is involved.


When an advisory board is set up to provide support in science or marketing, it is necessary to identify a person who is willing to lend its name and time to recruit and to deal with the other problems. An advisory board which considers that no engagement exists (whether it involves poorly organized meetings, often canceled meetings, a leader canceling his last-minute participation, advice which is not passed on or ignored), will become ineffective quickly as members will not prepare, attend meetings or apply the level of rigor that requires.

So we come here in a full circle to start with the creation of an advisory board. Advisory boards can be helpful and compliant or time-consuming. Finally, you get what you’re creating, developing, and working with them.

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Effect of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Disease on Human Body

Effect of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Disease on Human Body

The neurological diseases of Alzheimer and Parkinson are both caused by damaged brain cells. This condition results in dementia, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances. Psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations may also occur in both conditions.

The disease of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s may share certain causes and effects, but they are different. They have different effects on the brain and unique ways of progression.Both disorders have different consequences, different manifestations and progress at different rates.

What is Parkinson’s?


Parkinson’s affects dopamine-causing brain cells, a significant chemical for the brain that involves the communication of nerve cells. Dopamine is released in substantia nigra, a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain.this region is crucial for reward and movement. While cognitive problems with Parkinson can occur, they are generally more physical problems. These include tremors, changes in posture or changes in the patterns and expressions of the face may include these.

The brain circuit responsible for controlling rhythm and movement gets affected by Parkinson’s. This causes motor coordination problems especially related to initiating movement, consecutive movement, and slowness of movement. Parkinson’s development takes place in “Five Stages” over the years. 

  • Stage One: It’s mild initially and does not affect a person’s daily activities much.


  • Stage Two: Tremors and other movement issues become more pronounced.


  • Stage Three: Also called mid-stage, maintaining a body balance becomes an issue coupled with decreased reflexes. Also other symptoms are similar to stage 2. The movements become slower and falls become more prominent.


  • Stage Four: It is advisable for people with Parkinson’s of stage 4 to not live alone because of significant decreases in movement and reaction times


  • Stage Five: It is the advanced stage of Parkinson’s. Advanced stiffness in the legs can also cause freezing upon standing, making it impossible to stand or walk. People in this stage require wheelchairs, and they’re often unable to stand on their own without falling. Around-the-clock assistance is required to prevent falls.


Although Parkinson has no “cure,” it is considered to be a highly treatable condition. Many Parkinson patients still lead productive, self-sufficient lives for several years with early diagnosis.

Does Parkinson’s Cause Dementia

The symptom of cognitive decline is common to both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Parkinson’s does not always cause dementia because cognitive decline is less in Parkinson’s. Studies have shown around 50% of people with Parkinson’s develop cognitive impairment, ranging from mild forgetfulness to full-blown dementia.

Parkinson’s dementia occurs in the “subcortical” and Alzheimer’s dementia occurs in the “cortical” region of the brain. Therefore, the clinical symptoms of these two dementias are somewhat different. 

Parkinson’s Dementia vs. Alzheimer’s Dementia


Parkinson’s dementia can cause physical activity impairment and impact the motor skills, as per the experts. Two neurotransmitters, called dopamine and serotonin (chemicals produced by brain cells) are usually damaged by parkinson.

This form of dementia can also cause slow thinking and memory problems, as well as cause movement and coordination problems . However, this is  less pronounced until the later stages of the disease.

Two types of brain protein-tangles (tau) and plaques (beta amyloid), builds up and kill brain cells in case of Alzheimer’s. Memory, clear thoughts, language skills, and orientation are affected by  Alzheimer’s dementia. It reduces the ability to understand, learn and evaluate. The retention of new data and memory is affected more than motor skills.

To establish the best approach to treatment, it is important to distinguish between these neurodegenerative conditions. One condition medication can create problems if administered to a patient with the other condition  administered.

7 Ways to Decrease the Risk of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s


No “cure” for either disease currently exists. Parkinson’s disease is however considered to be more treatable, particularly in early stages of the disease. Medicines, physical therapy and lifestyle changes like dietary changes are part of treatments. Research continues to indicate that both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s can be prevented by a brain-healthy lifestyle. Here are some basic guidelines:

  1. Nutritious Diet: Diets with fresh vegetables and fruits, whole grains, olive oil, beans, fish , poultry and dairy can protect against cardiovascular disease, diabetes , and cancer, and promote cognitive health. These diets promote cognitive health by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. The risks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson ‘s disease can be mitigated. Keep away from processed meats and saturated fat like butter and heavy cream. Sugar may also lead to unhealthy weight gain as it is inflammatory in nature.
  2. Fitness and exercise: A moderate exercise for 30 mins, 3-4 days a week is the best preventive measure.  Building an exercising routine is beneficial in the long run for both brain and body. The  exercise can be like badminton, swimming, cycling or walking etc.
  3. Get a good night’s sleep: Studies have shown that insomnia and sleep quality affect brain and overall well-being in significant manner. The recommended sleep timings are 7 to 8 hours.
  4. Control stress and hypertension:  Stress can lead to vascular dementia and to additional health risks. When Hypertension is controlled ,  cognitive decline is also protected. Yoga, meditation, and deep breathing is also of help.  you can  also relax in the garden or listen to relaxing music. Emotional well-being improves your fitness.
  5. Engage in social interaction: Experts believe social participation supports healthy longevity and can help prevent many diseases. Interacting with family and friends, participating in community activities and learning can keep mind engaged. Being alone and in solitary confinement can lead to depression and cognitive decline.
  6. Ensure mental stimulation: It is always important to engage in mentally enhancing activities. Crossword puzzles, books and other brain games and card games all actively stimulate the brain.   An active mind and active body helps to maintain a healthy brain.
  7. Music therapy:  The music therapy has long been suggested for dementia patients. This helps to manage stress and promotes wellness and healing. Listening to music, singing, even dancing or just tapping the feet and clapping the hands can be emotionally and physically rewarding. 

Following the above steps you can keep your mental health in check. By taking care of yourself first, you will be able to take care of your loved ones too.

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The corporatisation of medical facilities for better India

The corporatisation of medical facilities for better India

India as a country has made significant improvement in the healthcare sector in the 21 century from providing world-class affordable healthcare services to being the sort after medical tourism destination. India is also called a pharmacy of the world and the only country to have the capacity of producing more than 3 billion doses of vaccines annually. All these achievements seem minuscule in comparison to the demand for affordable healthcare and some serious shortcomings in medical care delivery.

It is expected that by 2022, healthcare is projected to reach $372 by 2022 at CAGR of 16-17%. In order to strengthen healthcare delivery and improve business prospects, policymakers, healthcare providers, business leaders, technology providers, and pharma companies will need to devise strategies that transform a spark into a sustainable fire. One such solution is the corporatization of healthcare.

The Present Scenario


In the opinion of Raviganesh Venkataraman, CEO, Cloudnine Group of Hospitals, the Indian Healthcare sector is faced with several challenges. These include the inadequate reach of basic healthcare services, shortage of medical personnel, quality assurance, the inadequate outlay for health research. The magnitude of these challenges is humongous, and it is excess to expect the government to take all the burden, the private sector participation should also be increased.  

The use of technology is critical to mitigating these problems in a dearth of resources and skilled caregivers. Technology such as mHealth, wearable, and mobile healthcare devices could be made a part of the healthcare ecosystem to quality care without stretching on resources.

The demand for affordable, accessible, and quality healthcare as well as the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases especially in times of pandemic like COVID-19 and chosen to sort after destination of International patients with incurable medical conditions in a hope to find a cure in India. Ayushman Bharat – PMJAY launched in 2018, the world’s largest government healthcare scheme providing access to medical care for 50 crores marginalized beneficiaries. Also, Indian Healthcare is also receiving a huge inflow of FDI and investment from PE funds.

The Achilles heels of the healthcare sector is a shortage of skilled manpower. According to WHO norms there should be 1 doctor for every 1000 people, whereas government hospitals have 1 doctor for every 10,189 people in India. There is huge disparity in the distribution of doctors, states like UP and Bihar are having a shortfall of doctors. On the other hand, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, and Goa have more doctors than the WHO norm. There needs to be a system for the upgrading of skills in deficient states. Here, the private sector could play a vital role in the skill development of medical professionals. 

For a healthy India in the future, a great emphasis must be laid on preventive healthcare with a strong network of the effective primary healthcare system. This system must be complemented with accessible and simple medical insurance facilities for all from government and private firms. 

Policymaking — A decisive part


The fundamental problem in India lies in supply and demand. The price is an outcome of the relation between supply and demand. In recent years policymaking is heavily focused on building the capacity in the supply side to keep up pace with India’s growing demand. While price regulation of essentials is important but long term solution lies in capacity creation in medical device manufacturing and completing the supply chain of pharmaceuticals, especially of active ingredients under ‘Make in India campaign’. The best outcomes can be achieved if any policy is framed through a consultative approach with inputs from all stakeholders.

Strengthening public health


The government is implementing various measures for providing better care for its citizens. Ayushman Bharat – PMJAY, the non-communicable diseases programme, the communicable diseases programmes on tuberculosis (TB), malaria, HIV and the National Tobacco Control Programme, the Pulse Polio campaign or the national immunisation programme, have shown tremendous results. The Government of India is committed to work towards a distress free health care and functional and comprehensive wellness system for all by 2030. This is just the tip of the iceberg and more needs to be done. 

Healthcare and social security is the responsibility of state and civil society. Without participation from civil society it is extremely difficult to get desired results in these domains. Clean water and air, without which good health is not possible, depends on cropping practices, industrial regulation, pollution control, environmental protection and law enforcement. It’s not a single policy, but interconnected, multi-pronged thinking that is needed. Policies pertaining to social security – that includes care of expectant mothers and children, unemployment allowance, disability payments, old age security, skills training and re-skilling, housing and healthcare, are all linked. These issues can only be addressed at policy making level.


Affordable Quality Medicines 


The success of treatment significantly depends on safety and efficacy of a medicine. The safety and efficacy are intertwined issues. One is to ensure the quality of medicine produced is of the highest standard. Second to keep the prices of these quality medicines under check so that it is accessible to every person. 

The first issue can be addressed by maintaining strict quality standards and effective implementation by enforcement agencies like FSSAI. The other through making generic medicines and improving expenditure on research and development. There are many startups making it accessible- these generic medicines to the public at large through an effective distribution system.

In India, healthcare is mostly sponsored from out of pocket expenses, and a huge chunk of these expenses is on medicine. The problem could be solved by developing a model by arriving at consensus from government and pharma companies. Indian government has already taken steps towards Universal Health Coverage in the form of Ayushman Bharat and  Pradhanmantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP), generic medicine distribution scheme for all.


Digital Technologies


When it comes to digital revolution India is among the leading countries. This capability of India could be harnessed for transforming how healthcare services are delivered. Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is optimising efficiency by ensuring continuity and aiding information sharing across caregivers,  by reducing human error.

Another technology that has paced up in India during COVID-19 is telemedicine offering convenient healthcare to patients in remote locations. Wearable technologies are improving which helps in monitoring important life processes accurately without medical professionals’ help and this information can be safely shared with physicians for review. 

Healthcare Trends in 2020


In the upcoming decade the healthcare sector will by great numbers with a matured digital healthcare ecosystem. The dynamic policy and further scaling of government projects like Ayushman Bharat and Pradhan Mantri Janaushadhi Pariyojna along with change in strategy of insurance company’s by covering every possible disease by providing insurance plans as per needs of various demographics.

The startup culture has taken the medical sector with storm, with various startups trying to come with solutions for different needs. These solutions are coming from the field of virtual reality, big data, Internet of things (IoT), telehealth, robotics and genomics.

The centre came with notifications in the official gazette criminalising assault on healthcare professionals till the Healthcare Service Personnel and Clinical Establishments (Prohibition of Violence and Damage to Property) Bill, 2019 is passed by the parliament in the wake of incidents on corona warriors.The offence is punishable with imprisonment upto 5 years and fine extending upto Rs 5 Lakh.

Change is a fact of life, which is inevitable. The government, industry leaders, health experts, doctors and other stakeholders have set their objectives for the future with the hope that the next decade will bring about the much-needed and positive shift in Indian health.

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COVID – 19 and Chemotherapy related mortality rates in Cancer Patients

COVID - 19 and Chemotherapy related mortality rates in Cancer Patients

A study made Lennard Y W Lee, Jean Baptiste Cazier, T Starkey, C D Turnbull, published under title “COVID-19 mortality in patients with cancer on chemotherapy or other anticancer treatments: a prospective cohort study” published in Lancet, highlight the higher mortality risk in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy from covid-19. Patients who used hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin to treat COVID-19 were nearly three times more likely to die.COVID-19-related mortality in patients with cancer may be driven by age, gender, and other comorbidities not recent anticancer treatment, according to results from a large prospective cohort study published in The Lancet.

This study was a result of the United Kingdom Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project (UKCCMP). In a large cohort of cancer-related patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapies and other anti-cancer treatments, the investigators wanted to describe the clinical and demographic features and COVID-19 outcomes.

The sample pool of 800 patients with cancer and symptomatic COVID-19 were placed under investigation and observation from March 18 till April 26, 2020. The disease course of COVID-19 was mild for 412 (52%) patients, severe for 187 (23%) patients and critical for 173 (22%) . In total, 226 (28%) died.

The enrollment under UKCCMP can be by patient with active cancer and confirmed COVID-19 with a network of cancer centers in the UK. These centers were encouraged to enter on a real-time basis.Mortality or discharge from hospitals was the primary endpoint.

The observations showed that patient of advanced age had significantly higher death risk (odds ratio [OR], 9.42; P <.0001), male gender (OR, 1.67; P =.003; patient deaths, 33% of all men vs 20% of all women), and having other comorbidities, specifically hypertension (OR, 1.95; P <.001; 41% of those who died vs 27% of survivors; P <.001) and cardiovascular disease (OR, 2.32; 21% of those who died vs 11% of survivors; P <.001).

Cytotoxic Chemotherapy was administered to 35% of patients (281 of 800), within 4 weeks of testing positive for COVID-19. The mortality was almost similar between patients who received chemotherapy(27%) as compared with those who had not(29%).

There were no significant differences in mortality from the disease of COVID-19 in a multivariate analysis that were modified for age , gender and comorbidities between patients receiving recent chemotherapy treatment and those not receiving it (OR 1,18; P = 0,380). In addition, there was no additional risk of death in patients who received immunotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted treatment or radiation therapy in the last four weeks of observation.

The Authors remarked that “Our data are strongly indicative that COVID-19 mortality in patients with cancer is principally driven by advancing age and the presence of other non-cancer comorbidities,”. The authors further conclude by this – “At a population level, our data do not suggest that chemotherapy or anticancer treatments will necessarily increase the risk of mortality from COVID-19, and gives confidence to oncologists and other clinicians that delivery of effective anticancer regimens should continue during this difficult time.”

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Impact of Social Media on Health Sector

Impact of Social Media on Health Sector

The internet revolution has affected our lives in many possible ways. The one facet of this revolution is social media, which is so integral to our daily lives that on an average we spend 144 minutes or 2 hours and 24 minutes daily. Global internet use is over 4.2 billion and social media is actively being used by over 3 billion people. Interactions over social media are not limited to personal connections; 80% of Instagram users follow at least one business account. It is easy to connect with brands while catching up on your friend’s timeline with all the ads your social media provides.

Does social media have an impact on healthcare?


Many industries have begun to understand the value of social media’s ability to connect with consumers. Platforms help companies raise awareness of brands, exchange information and partner with influencers from industry. Digital marketing strategies are taking over traditional marketing strategies because social media is a future wave.

Healthcare industry joined the social media bandwagon a little late. The industry has just begun to recognize the undeniable impact that social media can have on healthcare quality. The risk to patients and healthcare providers which should be taken into account may, possibly, delay this industry to actively take up social media. Patient information confidentiality and privacy must be maintained at all times. Social media can give consumer information more quickly than any other tool. Look at social media history and the positive impact that this can have on the quality of healthcare.


The Heads and Tails of Social Media


Most people use social media to watch funny videos and post family and friends photos. Some users post more than once every day. However, did you know that activity in social media can have dire consequences? Roughly 70% of employees use social media during the recruitment procedure to screen potential employees. You might not be out of the hook when you are hired — more than 40% of employers use social media to check their current employer.

In the court even social media posts can be submitted as evidence. Anything you share may be brought before the judge as proof in proceedings. The evidence is legally obtainable from all public updates. So it could help or hamper your case to post images before or during or after certain incidents.

Healthcare sector took up Social Media


Healthcare industry took cognizance of the benefits reaped by the businesses and government of social media. There are major opportunities missed by hospitals that are not active on social media. These systems communicate with current, past and future patients through social media. Social media offers an easy way for consumers to share information. Even providers and other employees are surfing the web. Most health professionals use social media to network with their peers. For activities such as open forums, most of the physicians use these platforms. Having an online presence provides transparency to consumers and peers. Many professionals join platforms like Twitter to become influencers in healthcare. They can explore the industry, make connections, and engage their community.  It’s not only doctors who use social media as interactive marketing. Many nurses, pharmacists, counselors, and therapists have large followings online. 

Healthcare Consumers are embracing it


Mobile healthcare is expanding as consumers are accessing the data from mobile devices. more than 320,000 fitness and health apps available worldwide. However, not many of them collect data efficiently. These applications can not cure chronic illness, but experts think they can alter behaviour. Combining  apps with a doctor or counselor will have a positive impact on your health. Many users believe an app can make you more accountable and give access to information and care.

Consumers use social media to look for new therapies and advice. Providers must connect to consumers by means of educational content. In order to educate others on health topics, this information can be shared. Over 40 % of consumers say that information on social media affects their health and well-being choices. Another 90 % of people aged 18 to 24 years find social media medical information trustworthy. This means that it is more important than ever for health experts to be visible online.

Social Media’s Impact on Healthcare


Social media’s role in healthcare is being embraced by the medical fraternity. From increasing access to creating a consistent image, hospitals and other providers are opening up new accounts daily. The ways in which social media is helping professionals to reach more patients and improve care.


  • Generations Accessing Healthcare Online


Healthcare companies are gradually shifting from traditional advertising to digital advertising. Patients seek quick access to information when they need it online. Every generations are on internet for some or the other healthcare needs

As per Forbes report of January,2017 9% of all facebook users are over 55 years of age. The baby boomers are becoming more tech-savvy. Their searches include search for local healthcare services and social media platforms such as youtube for health related information. Whereas, millennials are focused on healthy living as well cost conscious. This makes them highly susceptible to use social media for health care information.

Generation Y are frequent consumers of information available on social media or online support groups when they are ill. They can get 24*7 support from others who have similar experiences, this leads them to try new approaches  to preventive healthcare. By providing authentic and reliable information, healthcare providers and companies could engage with consumers and improve their overall wellness.


  • Being Authenticity


Patients have quick access to information on the internet and they are becoming more aware. Now patients are smart and  asking questions to doctors. Once satisfied then only they want to establish relationships for their healthcare. Allowing one or two tech-savvy employees to share pictures of office or facility events helps to bring a level of humanness to any practice. Offering a “behind the scenes” look will increase consumer engagement and improve overall client satisfaction.


  • Being Aware of Competition


Competition’s social media handles give the hospital’s and company’s management to keep an eye on them. Through this they evaluate competitors’s community engagement, products and services offered, strengths and weaknesses through customer’s feedback. This significantly impacts decision making before investment in new services and technology.


  • Staff Training


Some health facilities create hashtags for training for specific staff groups. Users can share new research, hospital policies, and events information with one another. Instead of sending everyone over intranet eventually to get lost in information,  they use hashtags to educate employees about new policy and procedures. Staff can positively influence patient care when they are up-to-date with the latest information.


  • Real-Time Updates


Social media allows health professionals to quickly communicate emergencies and situations. Updates can provide life-saving information, it also provides census notifications to crisis alerts. The World Health Organization’s Twitter Feed is a fantastic example of getting real-time information to the masses. They provide information on everything from sugar use to the most recent global or local crises. In disasters, the World Health Organization uses social media to educate individuals about safety measures and where critical resources such as food and water can be located.


  • Source of Effective Feedback


Consumers want to connect with providers quickly. They You may have to share a reaction to a medication or a recent appointment. It is a simple way to learn how patients perceive care received by allowing patients to give feedback on social media handles.


Patients may interact via social media messages or live chats. They can provide important information to improve your services. Use feedback to track complaints and trends and applaud employees recognized by consumers. Providers can also reach the patient after feedback has been provided. Provide additional training by gathering patient information for improving care given.


Social Media for Future Development


Use of Social media for providing healthcare might be a new technology, but it will integrate further in our life like it did for communication. Consumers are constantly looking for information that they need at their fingertips. They need healthcare providers that are responsive to their needs and authentic. When consumers get what they need through responsive providers, selfcare behaviour flourishes.

You need a social media presence, regardless of whether you’re a solo practitioner or a large academic institution. Create a username and start to engage your community. To improve the quality of the health care that you provide, use these strategies.

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Man-Up: Dealing with Men’s Mental Health Issues

Man-Up: Dealing with Men’s Mental Health Issues

You must be wondering why the article would start with the term Man-Up which means “be brave or tough enough to deal with an unpleasant situation.” If you ever ask a man which situation he finds tough or unpleasant to be in most of the time, the answer would be to open about his clogged up feelings and mental health.  

Okay, let me ask you another question. When do we celebrate World’s Men day? Or why do we even celebrate it? Aren’t men the privileged class?.  To put simply, International Men’s Day is celebrated annually on November 19, worldwide. Its focus is on the efforts towards the welfare of men by making a positive difference and raising awareness of issues that men face.

International Men’s Day was inaugurated in 1992 by Thomas Oaster.


International Men’s Day includes topics around mental health, toxic masculinity, the prevalence of male suicide, promoting men’s health, improving gender relations, to name a few. For 2019, the theme is “Making a Difference for Men and Boys”. This day is providing the greater platform for raising awareness about an important global issue of men’s mental health.  


Some Important stats before we move ahead


7.5 % of the Indian population suffers from some form of mental disorder. India account’s for 15% of the global mental, neurological and substance abuse disorder burden, as well as one-sixth of India’s all health-related disorders- World Health Organisation’s 2018 report stated. WHO also predicts that by 2020, roughly 20 per cent of India will suffer from mental illnesses. And to cater to this demographic, we have less than 4,000 mental health professionals.


The report also highlights India is one of the countries with the highest rate of depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the world. The US is the most mentally unwell.

5 Major Mental Health Problems Affecting Men

  1. Depression 
  2. Anxiety
  3. Bipolar Disorder 
  4. Psychosis and Schizophrenia
  5. Eating Disorder


Suicides and Substance Abuse


Indian Health statistics of 2018 shows that men are more prone to commit suicide than women which comprises to 70% of suicidal deaths. Around 9% of the males are prone to alcohol, whereas 32.8% and 1.1% to tobacco and other substances respectively.


The stigma around men’s mental health


In its 2018 report, the WHO stressed that cultural stigma is one of the key impediments for people to admit that they struggle to seek assistance, and that stigma is particularly strong along with men. 

Consider the following stigmatic statements:

  • Mental illnesses aren’t real illnesses
  • People with mental health problems can snap out of it if they try hard enough
  • People with a mental health challenge can’t handle stress
  • Mental health challenges are an excuse for bad behaviour
  • Addiction is just a lack of willpower
  • People experiencing mental health problems are angry, crazy or “psycho”
  • People with mental health challenges are violent and dangerous
  • People don’t recover from mental illnesses

Masculine role socialization: Many boys learn at an early age that they are not supposed to express vulnerability. They are told to suppress most emotional responses, like crying.

Social norms: This may become such a habit that by the time they reach adulthood they may be unaware of most emotions aside from anger, one of the few culturally sanctioned male emotions. reports that 1 in 10 men suffer from intermittent explosive disorder or rage.

“Described in various media as a ‘silent epidemic’ and a ‘sleeper issue that has crept into the minds of millions,’ with ‘chilling statistics,’ mental illness among men is a public health concern that begs attention.”

Men may have different symptoms

Specialists also point out that men and women can experience different symptoms of the same mental health issues. This, they say, maybe partly a “side effect” of divergent views of mental health.

Different men have different symptoms, but some common depression symptoms include:

  • Anger, irritability, or aggressiveness
  • Feeling anxious, restless, or “on the edge”
  • Loss of interest in work, family, or once-pleasurable activities
  • Problems with sexual desire and performance
  • Feeling sad, “empty,” flat, or hopeless
  • Not being able to concentrate or remember details
  • Feeling very tired, not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much
  • Overeating or not wanting to eat at all
  • Thoughts of suicide or suicide attempts
  • Physical aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems
  • Inability to meet the responsibilities of work, caring for family, or other important activities
  • Engaging in high-risk activities
  • A need for alcohol or drugs
  • Withdrawing from family and friends or becoming isolated

Seven Things You Can Do to Reduce Stigma

  1. Know the facts. Educate yourself about mental illness including substance use disorders.

  2. Be aware of your attitudes and behaviour. Examine your own judgmental thinking, reinforced by upbringing and society.

  3. Choose your words carefully. The way we speak can affect the attitudes of others.

  4. Educate others. Pass on facts and positive attitudes; challenge myths and stereotypes.

  5. Focus on the positive. Mental illness, including addictions, are only part of anyone’s larger picture.

  6. Support people. Treat everyone with dignity and respect; offer support and encouragement.

  7. Include everyone. It’s against the law to deny jobs or services to anyone with these health issues.

Things to Help in Reducing Mental Health Problem


  • Exercise : Research has shown that mental problems like depression in men have direct correlation with low testosterone in men. Thus  exercising daily, even a 30 mins walk have significant effect on  level testosterone produced in male body.
  • Effective Sleep : Researches have shown that effective sleep which includes quality and quantity of sleep, significantly decreases the mental health problems. Another study reveals that 87% of people experienced improvement in their depression and depression symptoms after 8 weeks of quality sleep.
  • Food : Food plays a significant role in our physical health, as well as our mental and emotional health. When you are struggling with depression, it can feel a bit overwhelming to think about eating the right foods. However, some of these small changes in your diet may help to decrease your symptoms and have a positive effect on your daily life. Food containing good quality of omega – 3 fatty acids and proteins are good for brain thus affecting overall mental health.


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Carbohydrates plus Sucralose gone bitter

Carbohydrates plus Sucralose gone bitter

Anyone who embarks a journey towards a healthy lifestyle knows that a healthy lifestyle is the net result of effective workout, balanced and clean diet, sufficient and comfortable sleep, and most importantly calm and awakened mind. A most common phrase which you will hear in the fitness world is “Eat Clean”, which simply means reducing the consumption of food which contains excessive salt and simple carbohydrates (processed sugar).

 The immediate impact which the body feels when eating simple carbohydrates(sugar) is a spike in insulin level.  This spike is a result of our body’s sensitivity towards glucose in bloodstreams also known as insulin sensitivity. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR) are 45–65% of your daily calories from carbs, 20–35% from fats and 10–35% from protein.

 These macronutrients are further classified as simple or complex carbs and proteins, good fat or bad fat. The majority of energy must come from complex carbohydrates because if we eat more simple sugar our mindsets into the trap of dopamine loop. Although dopamine is a happiness hormone, being in a continuous dopamine loop has its adverse effect. To avoid these ill effects, corporations came up with artificial sweeteners as a substitute to processed sugar with fewer calories such as sucralose having less to no side effects. 


Combining carbs and sweeteners could affect insulin sensitivity


The new research paper published in Cell Metabolism by researchers from Yale University, the researchers indicate that a combination of artificial sweeteners and carbohydrates appears to lead to poorer insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. Insulin is a key hormone whose primary role is to regulate blood sugar. When insulin sensitivity is affected, many metabolic problems can develop, including diabetes.

Like every other sense in the human body, the sense of taste serves the practical purpose of keeping our body healthy and being wary of poisonous plants and spoiled food. A healthy person’s sensitivity to sweet taste allows their body to release insulin into the blood when that person eats or drinks something sweet.


Sucralose plus carbs: Research and Result


The researcher divided the 45 healthy adults aged between 20 – 45 into two groups, who hardly consumed low – calorie sweeteners. The group members were asked to maintain their regular diet, except drinking 7 fruit-flavoured beverages in the laboratory which either contained artificial sweetener sucralose or regular sugar cube.

Some participants were given drinks sweetened with sucralose which also contained a carbohydrate called maltodextrin. After 2 weeks of trial and by conducting various tests including functional MRI scans before, during and after the trial. The tests allowed the scientists to assess any changes in the participants’ brain activity in response to different tastes — including sweet, sour, and salty — as well as to measure their taste perception and insulin sensitivity.

The results were surprising because participants who consumed drinks with sucralose and maltodextrin together showed altered brain responses to sweet taste as well as altered insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism.

To verify the validity of these findings, the researchers asked another group of participants to consume drinks containing either sucralose alone or maltodextrin alone over a further 7-day period. The team found that neither the sweetener on its own, nor the carbohydrate on its own seemed to interfere with sweet taste sensitivity or insulin sensitivity.

Why does the sweetener-carb combo impact part insulin sensitivity?


The researcher is yet to figure out the exact reason but Prof. Small suggests -“Perhaps the effect resulted from the gut generating inaccurate messages to send to the brain about the number of calories present,”.

She further added -“The gut would be sensitive to the sucralose and the maltodextrin and signal that twice as many calories are available than are present. Over time, these incorrect messages could produce negative effects by altering the way the brain and body respond to sweet taste,” 

As a result, suggested artificial sweeteners and carbohydrates consumed individually have no harmful effects. So if consuming any food having artificial sweeteners, then one must see that it is not consumed with other carbohydrates. For example, diet coke with french fries.

The researchers are planning to conduct a similar experiment involving natural origin sweeteners such as stevia or other artificial sweeteners that have similar effects such as sucralose. The researcher cautioned about the generalisation of these results to all sweeteners.  The main types of different sweeteners commonly incorporated into our foods and drinks (including sucralose, aspartame, saccharin, and Ace-K) are metabolized differently and therefore will have different health effects.

Then what are smart choices?


  1. Switch to water or fresh fruit juice without sugar.
  2. If a sweet tooth or have a sweet craving, then have it with less regular sugar.
  3. If you wish to consume less calorie through sweets, then you switch to natural sweeteners, such as,

A. Stevia: Its a popular low-calorie sweetener extracted from the leaves of a plant called Stevia rebaudiana. This plant has been grown for sweetness and medicinal purposes for centuries in South America.

Several sweet compounds are found in stevia leaves. The main ones are stevioside and rebaudioside A.  Both are hundreds of times sweeter than sugar, gram for gram.

B. Erythritol: It’s a sugar alcohol found naturally in certain fruits. However, powdered erythritol available for purchase is most likely made via an industrial process. It contains 0.24 calories per gram, or about 6% of the calories in an equal amount of sugar, with 70% of the sweetness.

Erythritol doesn’t spike blood sugar or insulin levels and does not affect blood lipids like cholesterol or triglycerides. It’s absorbed into the body from the intestine but eventually excreted from the kidneys unchanged. Studies show that erythritol is very safe. However, as with other sugar alcohols, it can cause digestive issues if you consume too much at a time. 

C. Xylitol: It is a sugar alcohol with a sweetness similar to sugar. It contains 2.4 calories per gram or about two-thirds of the caloric value of sugar. Xylitol appears to have some benefits for dental health, reducing the risk of cavities and dental decay.

Xylitol doesn’t raise blood sugar or insulin levels. However, as with other sugar alcohols, it can cause digestive side effects at high doses.

D. Yacon Syrup: It’s harvested from the yacon plant, which grows natively in the Andes in South America. It’s very high in fructooligosaccharides, which function as soluble fibres that feed the good bacteria in the intestine.

Yacon syrup can help against constipation and has various benefits due to the high amount of soluble fibre.

  1. The other popular and healthy alternatives are Jaggery, Coconut Sugar, Date syrup, Molasses, Honey and Maple Syrup.

They may contain slightly smaller amounts of fructose and some tiny amount of nutrients, but your liver really won’t be able to tell the difference. However, the harmful effects of sugar depend completely on the context. Most of the studies are done in people who are already eating a high-carb, western junk food diet.

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Legal Compliances to set up Hospital in India

Legal Compliances to set up Hospital in India

Every business before starting needs to get done with various legal compliance as per the sector in which they are plying in. Similarly, for commencing a private practice in a healthcare sector as service provider, be it a Small Clinic, Individual Practice, Diagnostic services, a single specialty hospital, multi-speciality hospital attracts licencing and compliance requirements. 


Here are some of the quick compliance guides which you must adhere to before starting your journey in the healthcare service sector. These will vary from general to specific according to services provided.


These compliance requirements may vary depending on the services you offer.  See the reference below for different health care services/ speciality and the license under relevant laws:


License Under:

Ultrasound scanning

Pre–natal Conception and Prenatal Diagnostics techniques Act, 1994

Admission of Psychiatric Cases

Mental Healthcare Act, 2017

Selling Medicines/ Drugs

Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940

Transplantation of Human Organs

Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994

Scan centers having X-RAY, CT, PET-CT etc

Atomic Energy Regulatory Board

Blood bank/ Blood Storage Center

Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940

Infrastructural Compliance 


A necessity for starting any enterprise or business is space occupancy with valid address proof. Although the required area will be determined by the kind of service you are offering. The minimum requirement for a small clinic is a consulting room of minimum of 100 sq. ft. and this will be multiplied for specialty services as per their respective acts.

The basic approval required for occupying a building, which will given by your local authority; 

  1. Occupancy certificate.
  2. Completion certificate.
  3. Fire NOC, if the building where the clinic/ hospital is established is more than 15 meters tall.
  4. Lease deed/ rent agreement, if the space is on lease/rent.


Clinical Registration


Clinical Registration certificate under Clinical Establishments (Registration and Regulation) Act, 2010. The rules and regulations under this act have been different states accordingly.


Environmental Related Approvals


A lot of bio-medical waste  infectious waste includes discarded blood, sharps, unwanted microbiological cultures and stocks, identifiable body parts etc which are hazardous for the environment therefore a consent from the State Pollution Control Board for permitted bio-medical waste generation if your hospital does so.Such permits are usually valid until they have been revoked. However, if the quantity of waste generated changes, a revised approval is required.In addition, the hospital will need the consent of the pollution control board to operate depending on the size of the bed and consent.


Medical Professionals and Employees Registration 


The staff including doctor, nurses and other medical must be registered under their respective codes/acts such as;

  1. State Medical Council Registration for doctors.
  2. Nursing Council Registration for the nurses employed.
  3. Dental Council Registration, for the dentists.
  4. Pharmacy Council Registration for Pharmacists.
  5. Registration of clinical psychologists, if it is a psychology clinic.

Drug License


If you have an annexed pharmacy in your clinic / hospital or dispense your patients with medicine from the clinic / hospital, you need:

  1. License for retailing drugs obtained from the Drug Controller under Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.
  2. If narcotics are used by the clinic or hospital or dispensed in the form of injection or injection pills, then special approval must be obtained from the district collector.

Displaying of Licences 


Technically all the obtained licenses must be displayed in such way, which can be seen by the public, specifically, every Clinic/ hospital shall display:

  1. The registration certificate under the Clinical Establishments Act.
  2. Registration Certificate of the Doctors under the Indian Medical Council.


Law prescribe certain records to mandatorily maintained 

  1. Record of employment of adults, letters of employment issued and hours of work.
  2. Records regarding the treatment of patients (IMC Regulations 2002).
  3. Register of medico-legal cases (MLCs).
  4. Register of Medical certificates issued to patients.
  5. Copies of medical certificates issued to the patients.
  6. Registration certificates of doctors/nurses/pharmacists with the Indian Medical Councils (IMCs).
  7. Professional qualification certificates (degrees/diplomas) of the staff.
  8. Record of consumption of Morphine, Vermin other narcotic drugs (if applicable) (Narcotic Drugs Rules, 2002).
  9. Account of money receipts and expenses (Income Tax Act, 1961).


The Legal Compliance Management Company must be considered first if you start any business. They offer proper legal guidance and audits and handle everything simultaneously through software for compliance with laws and legislation. 

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Diabetic and Don’t Know it? Signs that you cannot Ignore

Diabetic and Don’t Know it? Signs that you cannot Ignore

Health is a very serious matter of concern especially in the current scenario where we are battling many unprecedented dangerous diseases. Amongst these dangerous diseases, Diabetes is the most talked disease across the world. Diabetes, also called Diabetes mellitus, is a chronic disease which is caused due to an increased amount of sugar in the blood. It occurs either due to the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. The hormone insulin regulates the level of sugar in the blood. Hyperglycaemia- raised blood sugar- is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time it leads to serious damage to many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.

According to WHO (World Health Organization), 8.5% of adults of age 18 and older had diabetes in 2014; in 2016, it became the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths. In 2019, around 463 million people were detected as diabetic across the world. Hence, it is very important to be aware of the disease especially its early symptoms to keep yourself in check.


Types of Diabetes


  • Type 1- it is insulin-dependent diabetes it is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin

The cause and means to prevent it are unknown

  • Type 2– is non-insulin-dependent diabetes that results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin.

Recently type 2, is seen to be on the rise not only in adults but also on an increasing rate amongst the children

  • Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia with blood glucose values normal but below those diagnostics of diabetes. It occurs during pregnancy.

  • Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and Impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) are intermediate conditions in the transition between normality and diabetes.


Here are some symptoms or early signs of diabetes to prevent and diagnose any health risks: *Most early signs could be so mild that they would go unnoticed*


  • Hunger and Fatigue-

the cells in our body require insulin to take in the glucose made by the body to produce energy. If the body doesn’t make enough insulin or if the cells resist the insulin in your body the cells fail to take the glucose and hence are unable to produce energy, which can make you hungrier and more tired than usual.

  • Excessive thirst and frequent urination-

increased amount of sugar in your bloodstream force the kidneys to work harder at filtering the extra sugar. This overloads the kidneys and causes you to excrete the excess sugar through urine. This can make you feel thirsty and dehydrated throughout the day. Continuous and excessive drinking of water leads to frequent urination.

  • Dry mouth and itchy skin-

as your body excretes all the excess fluids you drink, there is less moisture left as compared to usual. Thus, dehydration leads to dry mouth and dry skin which makes it itch.

  • Blurred vision-

the changing fluid levels in your body could make your eye lenses swell up which leads to changing shape and blurred sight.

  • Delayed Healing-

the high blood sugar levels lower the immunity of your body which leads to delay in the body’s healing process which is why cuts, scrapes and other wounds take a long time to heal when you are diabetic. Many people may also suffer from high blood pressure which causes the blood vessels to narrow due to slow circulation and therefore leading to slow down the healing process.

  • Numbness and Tingling in extremities-

the common signs of diabetes also include numbness and tingling sensations which is a form of nerve damage caused by the high blood sugar levels.


These indications of diabetic neuropathy if ignored can become severe and could lead to amputation.


In any of the above symptoms consult your doctor for earlier prevention

There is no cure available for Diabetes which is why on its early detection one can get regular treatment and watch their diet by taking simple lifestyle measures to prevent or delay the onset of further increase of risk. Early diagnosis can be accomplished by relatively inexpensive testing of blood sugar. Its treatment usually involves diet and physical activity along with the lowering of blood glucose and the levels of other known risk factors that damage blood vessels.

Wrapping Up


According to a Time of India report in 2016 with an estimate of 50 million people in India were suffering from type-2 diabetes (Malik, 2016). In current pandemic crisis along with the whole world, India has managed to put forth a lockdown system however, this has led to  drastic changes in the lifestyles of the people which have triggered weight gain enhancing the risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy people, according to a study conducted by (Thacker, 2020). Hence, now more than ever it has become extremely necessary for us to watch our health and to know thoroughly about the risks associated with such dangerous diseases like Diabetes.

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Health Insurance Deductibles Simplified

Health Insurance Deductibles Simplified

If few things we can learn from Covid – 19 pandemic is to keep Physical, Mental and Financial Health in check, that we are ready to face any surprise challenges. One such easy way of mitigating challenges is to be insured but even insurance such as health, auto, homeowner’s comes with caveats. This caveat in the insurance world is known as Deductible.

What is Insurance Deductible?

The out of pocket expenses that the insured or claimant must pay for the healthcare services covered under insurance plan,before your plan begins to pay benefits for eligible expenses. The amount of the health insurance deductible is determined by the type of health insurance plan and its coverage benefits that you have.

The higher the policy’s deductible, the lower the annual or monthly premium payments. The higher policy deductible results in a lower monthly payment. monthly premium is the fees paid on a recurring basis to the health insurance company to provide you with coverage.

How Health Insurance Deductibles Work?


It is commonly understood that the insured has to pay only the premium for the coverage. There is deducibles which claimants must pay before the insurance plan will start to cover the eligible healthcare expenses.

For example, If your health insurance plan has a deductible of INR 30,000,  you will have to pay all of your eligible medical expenses until you have met that INR 30,000 deductible. At that point, your insurance will start paying for the services you use (although the amount it pays may not entirely cover the cost of care).

In individual health coverage, you may pay one deductible for eligible healthcare expenses and another toward prescription drugs. If you have family coverage, you may pay individual deductibles for each person who’s covered, as well as a family deductible for the policy. Sometimes an insurance plan will pay for certain covered services, such as preventive care, without requiring you to pay anything toward them to meet your deductible.

Why Insurance Policies Have Deductibles


Through deductibles insurance companies share costs with policyholders when the claims are made. The other reasons for deductibles are: moral hazards and financial stability.


Moral Hazards


The behavioral risk of moral hazards is alleviated from deductibles. The risk that a policyholder will not be able to act in good faith is a moral danger. Insurance policies protect the policyholders against losses, so an inherent moral risk exists: the insured party can conduct itself riskily, without any financial consequences.


For example, if drivers are insured for a car, they might have the incentive to drive rashly or leave your vehicle in a dangerous area without supervision because they are insured against theft and damage. They have no “skin in the game” without any deductible.

Financial Stability


Insurance policies also use deductibles to provide the insurer with a measure of financial stability. A properly structured policy protects against disastrous losses. A deductible provides a cushion between any given minimal loss and a truly catastrophic loss.

Suppose, for instance, that an insurance policy has no deduction. The insurer would be responsible for the cost of every minor claim irrespective of the amount. This would create a huge number of claims and increase the policy’s financial costs. The insurer could also have a difficult time reacting properly to the actual losses caused in the event of catastrophic events.


Copayments and Coinsurance


It’s also important to understand what the deductible  does and  not cover for assessing health insurance coverage. “There will be a deductible for the year on any approved medical expenses you pay out of pocket. Co-payments are generally taken into account as exceptions. Your co-payment is a fixed dollar amount you pay for visits to the doctor, for medicines or for visits to an emergency care centre. These amounts may not be calculated for your yearly deductibles.

The amount you pay for medical services after you have met the deductible and your plan begins to pay should not be confused with co-insurance. The amount you are paying for your deductibles, co-payments and insurance is the maximum amount you are paying for your annual insurance plan before the beginning of payment is 100 percent.




Suppose you have a INR 20,000 deductible, a INR 5000 copay, 80/20 coinsurance, and an out-of-pocket maximum of INR 30,000.

You are visiting an orthopedist for hip pain (INR 5000 copay). The doctor directs an MRI to determine what causes the pain. The cost of the MRI is INR 20,000. You are paying the full price and you are paying your deductible.

The MRI shows that you have a ripped labrum and that you need surgery to remedy this. Operation costs INR 2,00,000 all in all. Your 20% co-insurance will cost INR 40,000. However, you only owe INR 10,000 because you have a maximum of INR 30,000 out of your pocket. The rest is paid by your insurance, provided that all fees are paid for.


Health Insurance Deductibles and Marketplace Plans


In India health insurance is offered  through various plans by different companies. The different plans have different deductible limits, which varies as per the risk covered. At the entry  level, you would typically have the lowest monthly premium, but you’d likely pay the most for deductibles . At the other end of the spectrum, a top end plan would offer the most coverage for healthcare plus the lowest deductible. If you have more money for things like routine care, specialists or prescription medicines, this could be good. The compromise is that premium plans are the most expensive. Find out if you are entitled to discounts for cost-sharing through various websites available in the market.

You can negotiate a lower care rate if you decide to pay yourself rather than your insurance coverage when you think you will not be able to pay the year-round deductible. If you’d rather pay from the pocket, doctors , hospitals and other health providers might be prepared to offer services at a reduced rate. If you end up with a health crisis, it’s only a very big risk to take.

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